Hurst, Clark and Brauer Solution for Constant-Head Tests in Nonleaky Confined Aquifers

Well-aquifer configuration for Hurst et al. (1969) constant-head test solution for confined aquifers with wellbore skin

A mathematical solution by Hurst, Clark and Brauer (1969) is useful for determining the hydraulic properties (transmissivity and storativity) of a nonleaky confined aquifer. Analysis involves matching the Hurst et al. solution to discharge data collected during a constant-head (constant-drawdown) test. The solution includes wellbore skin.

AQTESOLV provides visual and automatic methods for matching the Hurst, Clark and Brauer solution to constant-head test data. This easy-to-use and intuitive software promotes rapid and accurate determination of aquifer properties.


The following assumptions apply to the use of the Hurst et al. solution for constant-head tests:

  • aquifer has infinite areal extent
  • aquifer is homogeneous, isotropic and of uniform thickness
  • potentiometric surface is initially horizontal
  • aquifer is nonleaky confined
  • flow is unsteady
  • wells are fully penetrating
  • water is released instantaneously from storage with decline of hydraulic head


provides the following options for the Hurst et al. constant-head test solution:

  • recovery


Hurst, W., J.D. Clark and E.B. Brauer, 1969. The skin effect in producing wells, Journal of Petroleum Technology, November 1969, pp. 1483-1489.